V - W - X
Vitamin A is one of the most proven actives in skincare. It works in so many ways; as a messenger telling your skin cells to behave like the best version of themselves, by encouraging cell turnover for improved texture, and by stimulating collagen and elastin production. Vitamin A is very active and in its stronger forms can cause irritation, redness and flaking.
Vitamin B is a class of 8 vitamins. They are water-soluble which means they cannot be stored in the body. The most common vitamin Bs in skincare are B3 (niacinamide) and B5 (pantothenic acid).
Vitamin C is the most commonly known for its brightening and antioxidant properties. It prevents the skin from free radical damage to save our collagen fibres as well as enhancing the protection of SPF. It down-regulates pigment production and contributes the lightening the pigmentation. Vitamin C is also vital for collagen production. It can be found in products in a form of L-ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate or magnesium ascorbyl phosphate.
Vitamin D is produced in our body as a response to sun exposure. It is essential for the strength of the structures like bones and teeth, but also for healthy skin. That’s why we still need short, but regular unprotected sun exposure to ensure the right level of vitamin D in our system as well as supplementing it by eating vitamin D rich foods and supplements.
Vitamin E is a natural antioxidant and preservative. It protects the membrane of the body's cells and fights against free radicals. It is also vital It is a water soluble vitamin which can be found in certain oil, nuts, grains, fruit or wheat germs.
Vitiligo is a chronic disease in which melanocytes in certain areas get destroyed, so the skin doesn’t have enough pigment cells to produce the colour. They appear as white patches with defined borders and are mostly permanent discolouration. It is also classified as an autoimmune disorder where the body sends antibodies against itself.
Deionized, distilled, or purified, it's often used as a vehicle to deliver other ingredients into the skin.
Witch hazel is an excellent natural astringent, reducing inflammation and sanitising the skin. At the same time, it aids with hydration and stabilises the barrier function of the skin. Furthermore, witch hazel reduces trans-dermal water loss (TEWL) while calming the skin and reducing skin redness. In a clinical test, witch hazel proved to have a significant anti-inflammatory effect and helped reduce erythema induced by sunburn.
Wrinkles are lines which form on the skin as a result of a cumulative effect of repetitive movement and weakening of collagen fibres. There are 2 types of wrinkles dynamic (visible only when using facial expressions) and static (visible all the time even when the muscles are not contracting).
Xanthan gum is an ingredient used in skincare to stabilise, bind, thicken or improve product texture. It is not an active ingredient and does not have any beneficial properties.
Xanthophyll are naturally occurring yellow pigments found in plants and animals (in the fat and skin). It is in the carotenoid family (red and yellow pigments) and is used in skin care for its skin conditioning properties. Unlike other carotenoids, it is unable to convert to vitamin A.