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Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid (BHA) obtained from white willow bark. This BHA works on the uppermost layer of the skin and within the pores. It is excellent for those experiencing breakouts as it is oil soluble so it is it is able to exfoliate and remove dead cells and debris trapped in pores. It is also effective for individuals with rosacea, psoriasis and folliculitis due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It possesses antibacterial, antifungal and exfoliating properties. It also has antimicrobial and anti-ageing properties. We introduce this in Correct, Prevent and Perfect treatment when skin is really congested and in need of extractions.

Sea Buckthorn Oil is sourced from the fruits and seeds of the sea buckthorn plant. When applied topically, it has exceptional healing properties and has even been used to treat radiation burns experienced by cosmonauts (casual). It is rich in carotenoids that protect the skin from UV free radical damage. It is also packed full of vitamins A, C, E, and K making it brilliant and reducing inflammation, encouraging cell turnover, rejuvenating the skin and wound healing.

Sebum is an oily substance produced by our sebaceous glands. It creates skin’s natural moisture and is a part of a skin barrier. It consists of triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, squalene, was esters and cholesterol esters. Sebum can be highly inflammatory on the skin as excess production increase the growth of acne bacteria (sebum is their breakfast, lunch and dinner). Sebum production can be increased by hormonal fluctuations in the body.

Sensitive skin is a term used to describe when skin easily is irritated, feels sore and tender, often is reactive to external factors like touch, weather or cosmetic products. Some people are born with a tendency to sensitivity and weak skin barrier, but some develop it through lifestyle and habits like sun exposure or using hot water.

Serums are concentrated blends of active ingredients designed to target specific skin conditions. They have smaller molecules to ensure effective penetration and are usually thin oil or water based solutions.

A scar is a result of a skin injury. Whenever skin tissue in the body experiences trauma, the skin starts producing collagen to replace the damage. Different scars are formed based on how efficient the healing process is. When skin doesn’t produce enough collagen, the result is hypotrophic scars (aka pitted scarring) that leave an indentation in the skin. If the skin is too efficient at producing collagen, hypertrophic scars are formed that rise above the skin’s surface - these are also known as keloid scars.

Who doesn’t love a smooth, luxurious-to-the-touch complexion? If your skincare makes your skin feel this way, chances are it’s because of silicones. They’re used in products to leave a thin layer – or barrier – on the skin to protect it, meaning moisture is trapped, skin remains hydrated and, hey presto – a velvety soft finish. But it’s not just moisture that silicones are retaining – bacteria, skin oils and sebum are also trapped underneath the film, meaning that those with oily or acne prone skin could notice increased blackheads or experience a breakout. That is unless they perform a stricter than strict skincare regime. Silicones are generally safe for the skin and do not cause allergic reactions but is unknown how much they are affecting the environment.  Studies in Norway have shown it to be present in the Nordic region including oceans, lakes and fjords, and that’s enough information for us to know we’d prefer to exclude silicones altogether.

Sheet masks face-shaped fabrics or gels that are soaked in a concentrated serum of active ingredients. When placed onto the skin, the material seals in the ingredients, preventing evaporation so more of the actives can penetrate into the skin. Sheet masks are best at improving hydration and delivering nutrients to the skin. It’s important to never let the mask dry completely on the skin, as the material will then begin to draw moisture from the skin. For decongesting and exfoliation, other forms of masks such as cream or clay masks are more effective.  

The idea behind needling is to create tiny little micro punctures to the skin to allow wonderful aminos and vitamins into the surface (micro) OR create controlled trauma to stimulate collagen and regeneration (medical). 

There are many different needling devices that may be used: manual derma rollers, electric dermapens and derma-stamps to name a few. The treatment name and effect can vary depending on the length of needles used. 

At Pfeffer Sal, we use an advanced medical device called Skin Pen that provides a high frequency microneedling. It is the only FDA certified devise and can claim zero contamination. Medical skin-needling is an established clinical procedure used as a key treatment for acne scars, open pores, sun damage, facial and décolletage lines and wrinkles. More superficial needling (micro) promotes more supple hydrated skin and contributes to a milder skin rejuvenation effect with minimum downtime.

This is a Low Frequency Sound Wave which comes through a Sonic probe. When used in combination with mesoporation serums this increases the penetration of active ingredients to the dermis by4000%. It does this by using sound waves to create cavitation in the cells, making pathways for products to reach this level. As this is a sound wave you will hear a buzzing noise but as there is no current it is safe for everyone to use, even during pregnancy. 

SPF, which stands for Sun Protection Factor, is a numerical measure of the level of protection a product provides against UVB rays. SPF is usually segmented into 4 levels. Low (6 -10) Medium (15-25) High (30-50) and Very High (50+).

Squalene is a naturally occurring compound that is found in our sebum. Its role is to provide the skin with moisture and protection. Originally sourced from shark liver (gross, we know) most squalene found in skincare is derived from olive oil. Squalene helps to reduce trans epidermal water loss and is also an important part of the lipid barrier. Topical squalene is fantastic at relieving dryness, eczema, and irritation.

Stem cells are cells that haven’t differentiated into cell types such as skin cells, bone cells, or liver cells. Stem cells are found in embryos and adult bodies as well as plants which are where many stem cells in skincare are sourced from. Those who use plant stem cells in products claim that they stimulate rejuvenation however the evidence for their efficaciousness is minimal. Plant stem cell extracts are usually rich in antioxidants and it is currently thought that this is why they are beneficial for the skin.

Not only are Sulphates excellent at cleaning your skin, hair, teeth and even bits and bobs around the house, they’re also the reason why products like shampoo and toothpaste produce foam. And let’s face it, who doesn’t love a shampoo that lathers up quickly and effectively? You’d think that having an extra squeaky-clean complexion would help towards its wellbeing and appearance – clean skin means glowy skin, right? But because Sulphates remove every single trace of oil from the skin, it becomes less radiant, more parched and irritated. Despite being perfectly safe when used properly in products like soap, Sulphates have also been found to break down proteins which can lead to a degenerative effect on the cell membranes. SLS – otherwise known as Sodium Lauryl Sulphate – is a sulphated surfactant and is so powerful that it is regularly used for industrial floor and engine cleaning. Oh, and beauty products too. In short, Sulphates and SLS work way too hard and can actually work against your skin. So, we’ve given them a miss from our products – an infinite holiday if you will - because frankly, your skin is a lot more precious than a factory floor.

Sun damage is a colloquial term for the effects that overexposure of UV rays can have on the skin. Signs of sun damage include hyperpigmentation, sunburn, dry skin,actinic keratosis (dry small sandpaper-like patches) and collagen loss.


Telangiectasia is a skin condition that occurs when tiny blood vessels close to the skin’s surface widen and create thread like patterns across the skin. Due to their thread and web like appearance, they are often referred to as thread or spider veins. You can be more susceptible to telangiectasia because of hereditary factors or they can be formed through lifestyle choices such as diet, alcohol intake, exposure to hot temperatures, and sun exposure.

see Telangiectasia

Titanium dioxide in sun protection products works as a physical sunscreen. Its responsibility is to create a protective layer on top of the skin and reflect the sun rays, so they don't penetrate into the skin and damage skin cells. It is a natural mineral that fights against both UVA and UVB radiation.

Trans epidermal water (TEWL) loss occurs when water passes from the dermis (the deeper layer of skin) through the epidermis (the layer of skin you can see) and into the outside world through evaporation. It happens on a daily basis, but when we lose more water than our body can replenish it leads to dryness and flakiness. Causes of TEWL include low humidity environments, harsh topical products, or lack of hydrating and moisturising ingredients in your skincare routine. 

TCA is an ingredient derived from acetic acid (which we call vinegar) and is used in chemical peels to treat sun damage and pigmentation. TCA works by promoting the shedding of the outermost layer of the skin, encouraging cell renewal for a more even skin tone and texture.


Ultra violet radiation is a form of energy emitted from the sun. On the electromagnetic scale, it is in between visible light and x-ray radiation.

UVA rays have the longest wavelength of UV rays and are able to penetrate deeper into the skin than other UV rays. UVA rays are responsible for the immediate tanning effect and photoaging inclusive of pigmentation, collagen and elastin destruction.They are also able to penetrate through clouds and glass. You can protect your skin from UVA rays by using a broad spectrum or mineral-based sunscreen.

UVA rays have the longest wavelength of UV rays and are able to penetrate deeper into the skin than other UV rays. UVA rays are responsible for the immediate tanning effect and photoaging inclusive of pigmentation, collagen and elastin destruction.They are also able to penetrate through clouds and glass. You can protect your skin from UVA rays by using a broad spectrum or mineral-based sunscreen.

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