D - E - F
Dehydration lines are a sign of a lack of water in the epidermis. They are fine, shallow lines that look like fine lines or wrinkles but are only there temporarily when the skin is not hydrated enough. They most commonly form around the eyes and forehead. You can reduce dehydration lines through increased water intake and applying hydrating products topically to the area.
Dermal fillers are substances that are injected into the face to reduce wrinkles and increase volume. They can also be injected into the lips. Dermal fillers are usually made from hyaluronic acid and they are broken down by the body. They last around 6-18 months. Brand names of fillers include Juvederm, Restylane and Profhilo. Dermal fillers can and should only be performed by a licensed medical practitioner in the UK.
Dermatitis is a general term for skin irritation. It comes in many forms and has multiple causes but often presents itself as redness, dry skin, rashes, swelling or blistered skin. Dermatitis is not contagious.
The dermis is the middle layer of skin also known as the ‘true skin’. It is mostly comprised of collagen and elastin and is responsible for the strength and flexibility of the skin. The dermis also contains nerve endings, blood vessels, lymph nodes, sweat and sebaceous glands as well as hair follicles. Reduced collagen levels in the dermis result in loss of skin laxity, and wrinkles.
Dimethicone is a type of silicone that is used in personal care products to create a smooth product feel. It is also able to smooth the skin texture temporarily which is why it’s commonly used in primers. Dimethicone acts as a barrier over the skin so it can be used as a protective ingredient for harsh conditions such as strong winds or cold weather.
Dry skin is a skin type that does not retain enough moisture or produce enough oil. Symptoms of dry skin include flaking, tightness, itchiness and rough skin texture. Dry skin can be genetic or caused by lifestyle factors such as harsh skincare, pollution, medication, medical conditions, and other environmental stressors.
Elastin, as the name suggests, is a highly elastic protein, allowing the tissues to stretch or contract and then bounce back into its original shape. Along with collagen, it is one of the main components in the dermis.
Emollient is just the medical term for a moisturiser. Emollients work by creating an oily barrier over the skin to prevent dryness, aid repair and keep hydration from escaping to the outside world. Emollients come in a wide variety of textures ranging from rich, oily ointments through to more water based lotions.
Enzyme exfoliators are chemical exfoliators that use enzymes to break down the bonds between skin cells. The most common enzymes in exfoliators are papain, derived from papaya, and bromelain which comes from pineapple. They are more gentle and pregnancy safe alternative to AHAs and BHAs. Enzymes work in a similar way to a chemical peel by loosening the cell to cell bonds and causing the skin to peel away the most superficial layer of the skin.
The epidermis is the upper layer of the skin and the part of the skin you can see! It is the protective layer of the skin and its job is to be a barrier to the outside world. It’s waterproof and forms a barrier against germs, pollutants, dirt and debris. When the epidermis is in tact, it is very hard for the outside to penetrate and reach the body.
Essential oils are oils derived from plants. They are usually known for their therapeutic qualities (think eucalyptus or tea tree) or because of their scents (lavender or chamomile). Although some essential oils can be beneficial to the skin, they can be a skin irritant and cause photosensitivity so they must be used sparingly and with caution.
Exfoliators are products that encourage cell turnover. Exfoliators can be physical (grains that manually scrub dead skin cells off), or chemical (chemicals that dissolve dead skin cells).Exfoliating routines help to remove the build up of corneocytes (non living cells) allowing healthy looking skin by reducing the thickness of the utmost layer of skin and maintaining reproductive properties of the cells. However, don’t get too excited as over-exfoliation has the reverse effect and can cause sensitivity, breakouts and irritation. Stick to 2-3 times a week for optimum results.
A treatment designed to improve the health, condition, and appearance of the face.
Facial yoga are certain exercises that can be performed to improve the muscle tone in the face. This improved muscle tone lifts the facial features, reduce the appearance of loss of volume as well as sculpting facial features.
Facial massage can be performed manually or with the use of tools such as jade rollers, gua sha, or specific massage tools. Facial massage aids lymphatic drainage, lifts, encourages blood flow and collagen production, relieves muscle tension and can be an extremely relaxing experience! For best results, facial massage must be performed regularly and can even be incorporated into your evening cleanse.
Ferulic acid is a potent antioxidant which is found in the cell walls of plant seeds where it acts as a protector against oxidative stress as well as helping to preserve the seed. The same properties make it excellent in skincare as it protects your skin from free radical damage. Ferulic acid is also a fantastic stabiliser for other ingredients including vitamin C which us why you will often see them in the same product. This combination provides incredible antioxidant protection and helps vitamin C maintain its potency… where do we sign up?
Formaldehyde is a naturally occurring organic compound found in fruits, and Formaldehyde Donors have been used in beauty in much the same way as Parabens – as a preservative to keep products free of bacteria, yeasts and mould. Used way before Parabens even existed, they slowly release Formaldehyde over the course of the product’s life to keep it fresh. Think of its job as being similar to that of a room diffuser. But as efficient for the product as that sounds, Formaldehyde isn’t very kind to the skin. Studies have shown that these donors can actually cause skin allergies – contact dermatitis being one of them - and whilst the levels released in products are very low, Formaldehyde has been banned in the EU. Despite some Formaldehyde Donors still being allowed in percentages under 0.1% and the fact that we are exposed to formaldehyde in everyday life, we believe that not using Formaldehyde Donors in any of our products is our way of reducing our carbon footprint and being kinder to your skin.
Fragrances are substances that have a pleasant scent. They are used in skin care products to improve the smell and experience of using them as well as covering up any undesired odours in the product’s formulation. Fragrances, both naturally and synthetically derived, have the potential to irritate the skin and cause contact dermatitis. Furthermore, fragrances can be a combination of many different ingredients and there is no law ordering companies to disclose which ingredients it contains.