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Jessner is a combination of salicylic, lactic and resorcinol in an ethanol solution. It is typically a medium-depth peeling agent, the solution affecting the upper layer of the dermis, in a controlled manner - it removes skin cells from the top layer of the skin, the epidermis, and the upper portion of the middle layer, the dermis. It can also be used as a superficial peel and it can even be added to other peels to increase their effectiveness on scars and pigmentation.

Its benefits for the skin include the reduction of hyperpigmentation, evening out skin tone, reduction of the appearance of scars, smoothening of fine lines and wrinkles.

Jojoba oil is a wax extracted from the nut of the jojoba plant which is indigenous to central and south-west America. It is used for moisturising the skin, is antibacterial and mimics the texture of sebum making it a helpful ally in oil control.

Jowls is a term used to describe skin that sags below the jawline. Jowls occur naturally as we age and the levels of collagen and elastin that support skin structure decrease over time. 


Kaolin clay is sourced from the mineral kaolinite and is used in skincare to gently detox and exfoliate. Clay acts as a sponge, absorbing excess oil and impurities from the skin. Kaolin is a gentle alternative to other clays as it is not as drying and therefore can be used by dry and sensitive skins.

Keratin is a fibrous protein that our hair, nails and upper layers of skin are made from. It’s a protective protein and is stronger than other proteins in the body. Keratin anchors the cells together in the epidermis to form a barrier, forming the outermost layer of the skin to provide protection.

Keratosis pilaris is caused by a buildup of the protein keratin in the hair follicles. This results in small bumps under the skin and most commonly occur on the arms, thighs and bottom. There is no known reason for why it happens, but steps such as regularly moisturising, reducing the temperature of your showers and gentle exfoliation can alleviate it.

Kojic acid is derived from mushrooms or through rice fermentation and is used to target pigmentation irregularities. It works by blocking a chemical called tyrosine from forming. This action prevents melanin production, therefore, reducing pigmentation. Kojic acid is effective at targeting hyperpigmentation and melasma.


Many forms of vitamin C are unstable which can result in products losing their efficacy over time. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, aids collagen synthesis, improves skin tone, and also has a brightening effect.L-ascorbic acid is a stable form of vitamin C. It usually comes in the form of a powder which is then combined with other serums before applying to the skin. For best results, apply in the morning as this is when vitamin C can work its magic, protecting your skin from UV rays, pollutants and other stressors.

Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid that gently exfoliates the skin by melting the intercellular glue that binds cells together allowing the dead skin cells to easily shed.It comes from milk and is the softest out of all of the acids.It is also a humectant, which means it attracts water to the skin, giving it hydrating properties. Lactic acid has a larger molecular size than glycolic and is not able to penetrate as deeply so it’s less irritating and more suitable for sensitive and dry skin types. Lactic acid is naturally produced by the body so there is a low chance of a reaction.

Lanolin is a wax sourced from the sebaceous glands of woolly animals such as sheep, goats, camels and rabbits. Lanolin is an emollient and creates a barrier on the skin, trapping hydration and preventing dryness. As lanolin is sourced from animals, there is a danger of toxicity if the animals have been sprayed or treated with pesticides.

Lavender essential oil is known for its antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties and is used to aid healing and has a calming effect in aromatherapy. However, new research has shown that it is a potential endocrine disruptor and could contribute to breast growth in boys. 

Lecithin is a fat found in cells. In skincare it’s a bit of an all-rounder - it is used as an emollient to assist moisture retention and as a penetration enhancer- it can deeply penetrate into the skin and can carry other ingredients with it. It can also be used to emulsify ingredients that usually wouldn't combine.

LED light therapy is a non invasive treatment that harnesses specific wavelengths of light to treat a multitude of skin conditions as well as promoting healthy skin function. Clinically proven wavelengths of light promote a natural response in the skin known as photobiomodulation- a similar process to photosynthesis in plants. These wavelengths are absorbed by skin receptions that convert the light into celluar energy, resulting in better skin function and faster renewal. LED light also has regenerative, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. At Pfeffer Sal, we use the Dermalux LED devices which are registered as a CE medical device. 

Lemongrass oil is derived from the lemongrass plant and is known for its antiseptic and astringent properties. It is used to control oil production and to kill bacteria making it a great ingredient for acne and oily prone skin.

The lipid barrier is a part of the epidermis. It is a protective layer that consists of fatty cells like cholesterol, fatty acids and triglycerides. Its main function is to protect the skin from external aggressors and prevent excess water loss (known as transepidermal water loss) from skin layers.

Used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, liquorice root has been proven to be a powerful anti-inflammatory which is fantastic for calming and soothing irritated skin. It is particularly beneficial for conditions such as rosacea and psoriasis

Lycopene is a natural pigment that is responsible for fruit and vegetables’ red colour. It’s a potent antioxidant that protects skin from free radical damage from UV rays, pollutants and other environmental stressors. Internal sources of lycopene include tomatoes and watermelon.

Lymphatic drainage massage is a massage technique that encourages the movement of lymph fluid through the body. This massage technique helps to eliminate toxins, as well as reducing puffiness. It is very different from other massage techniques as it only uses very light sweeping techniques. 

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