Hormonal breakouts occur when there are fluctuations in hormone levels in the body. They are more common during puberty and menstruation as there is an influx of hormones during these times. Hormonal breakouts can also occur during periods of stress. They are usually localised to the lower jaw, chin and cheek area.
A humectant is an ingredient that attracts water to itself. In skincare products, it is used to prevent the loss of water from the skin and is commonly found in moisturisers and hydrating serums. Hyaluronic acid and glycerin are commonly used humectants.
Hyaluronic acid is a sugar that naturally occurs in the body. It’s a humectant which means it has the ability to draw and retain water in tissues. Each hyaluronic acid molecule is able to hold 1000X its weight in water delivering incredible skin hydration. Hyaluronic acid is also an antioxidant. It is used in skincare for its ultra hydrating properties, as well as being the main ingredient in most dermal fillers.
Known for its skin lightening benefits, Hydroquinone is a topical skin-bleaching agent for hyper-pigmented skin conditions. Hyper-pigmentation is when the skin appears darker in certain areas than the rest of the skin. It can make the skin look noticeably patchy and is caused by excess deposits of melanin – a pigment found in the skin, hair and iris. Hydroquinone is an ingredient used in skincare products to lighten these dark patches and even up the skin tone and whilst it doesn’t typically cause harm, it has in some cases caused side effects such as dryness, irritation, prutirus, erythema and mild contact dermatitis. Because of these side effects, products containing over 4% concentration have been banned in the EU. The tricky thing with Hydroquinone is that its effects are reversed when exposed to sunlight, meaning it can’t just be used as a one hit wonder - it needs regular use. Our rule? No Hydroquinone, no side effects. Simple.
Hyperkeratosis is the thickening of the outer layer of the skin. It occurs when the body overproduces keratin, a tough protein found in skin, nails and hair. If the skin is experiencing pressure, irritation or inflammation, the skin produces extra keratin to protect the skin from further damage. Examples of hyperkeratosis are calluses, warts, eczema and corns.
Hyperpigmentation happens when the skin produces excess melanin, the pigmentation responsible for its colour. This can lead to patches or areas of skin that appear as darker than the natural skin tone. It is an extremely common skin concern and it’s likely that we will all experience some form of hyperpigmentation in our lifetime. Causes of pigmentation include sun exposure, skin injury or hormonal influences such as pregnancy or menopause.
Hypopigmentation are patches or areas of skin that are lighter than your natural skin tone. Hypopigmentation occurs when your skin does not produce enough melanin, the pigment in your skin. Hypopigmentation can be caused by skin injury or can be down to certain conditions such as vitiligo and albinism.